NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence
Centre of Excellence Tallinn, Estonia

2012 Conference Proceedings

This book is a compilation of articles and research presented at the CyCon 2012 which focused on “Military and Paramilitary Activities in Cyberspace”. Reflecting the interdisciplinary approach of NATO CCD COE, this topic was explored from strategic, conceptual, political, legal and technical perspectives within two parallel tracks, the Law & Policy Track, chaired by Dr  Katharina Ziolkowski (NATO CCD COE) and the  Technical Track, chaired by Dr Rain Ottis (NATO CCD COE). Additionally, a Strategy Breakout Session, moderated by Dr Kenneth Geers (former member of NATO CCD COE), and multiple pre-conference workshops (organised by the Cyber Security Forum Initiative and NORMAN), completed the comprehensive programme offered.

You can download the full book as a PDF, individual articles are available for download below.
If you wish to order hardcopies, please contact publications -at-
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Book details:
Christian Czosseck, Rain Ottis, Katharina Ziolkowski
Hardcover: 453 pages
Publisher: NATO CCD COE Publications, May 2012
Language: English
IEEE Catalog Number: CFP1226N-PRT
ISBN 13 (print): 978-9949-9040-8-2
ISBN 13 (PDF):  978-9949-9040-9-9

Chapter 1: Cyberspace – The Role of States in the Global Structure
Legal Implications of Territorial Sovereignty in Cyberspace by Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
When “Not My Problem” Isn’t Enough: Political Neutrality and National Responsibility in Cyber Conflict by Jason Healey
Neutrality in Cyberspace by Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg
Impact of Cyberspace on Human Rights and Democracy by Vittorio Fanchiotti / Jean Paul Pierini

Chapter 2: Cyber Policy & Strategic Options
Russia’s Public Stance on Cyber/Information Warfare by Keir Giles 
French Cyberdefense Policy by Patrice Tromparent
A Treaty for Governing Cyber-Weapons: Potential Benefits and Practical Limitations by Louise Arimatsu
Internet as a Critical Infrastructure – A Framework for the Measurement of Maturity and Awareness in the Cyber Sphere by Assaf Y. Keren, Keren Elazari
The Significance of Attribution to Cyberspace Coercion: A Political Perspective by Forrest Hare
The Militarisation of Cyberspace: Why Less May Be Better by Myriam Dunn Cavelty

Chapter 3: Cyber Conflict – Theory & Principles 
Beyond Domains, Beyond Commons: The Context and Theory of Conflict in Cyberspace
by Jeffrey L. Caton
Applying Traditional Military Principles to Cyber Warfare by Samuel Liles, J. Eric Dietz, Marcus Rogers, Dean Larson
The Principle of Maneuver in Cyber Operations by Scott D. Applegate
Countering the Offensive Advantage in Cyberspace: An Integrated Defensive Strategy by David T. Fahrenkrug
An Analysis For A Just Cyber Warfare by Mariarosaria Taddeo

Chapter 4: Cyber Conflict – Actors 
Socially Engineered Commoners as Cyber Warriors - Estonian Future or Present? by Birgy Lorenz, Kaido Kikkas
The Notion of Combatancy in Cyber Warfare by Sean Watts
Direct Participation in Cyber Hostilities: Terms of Reference for Like-Minded States? by Jody Prescott

Chapter 5: “Cyber-Attacks” – Trends, Methods & Legal Classification
Attack Trends in Present Computer Networks by Robert Koch, Björn Stelte, Mario Golling
“Attack” as a Term of Art in International Law: The Cyber Operations Context by Michael N. Schmitt
Ius ad bellum in Cyberspace – Some Thoughts on the “Schmitt-Criteria” for Use of Force by Katharina Ziolkowski
The “Use of Force” in Cyberspace: A Reply to Dr Ziolkowski by Michael N. Schmitt
A Methodology for Cyber Operations Targeting and Control of Collateral Damage in the Context of Lawful Armed Conflict by Robert Fanelli, Gregory Conti
Command and Control of Cyber Weapons by Enn Tyugu
A Case Study on the Miner Botnet by Daniel Plohmann, Elmar Gerhards-Padilla

Chapter 6: Cyber Defence – Methods & Tools
Natural Privacy Preservation Protocol for Electronic Mail by Kim Hartmann, Christoph Steup
Paradigm Change of Vehicle Cyber-Security by Hiro Onishi
Sensing for Suspicion at Scale: A Bayesian Approach for Cyber Conflict Attribution and Reasoning by Harsha K. Kalutarage, Siraj A. Shaikh, Qin Zhou, Anne E. James
The Role of COTS Products for High Security Systems by Robert Koch, Gabi Dreo Rodosek
Conceptual Framework for Cyber Defense Information Sharing within Trust Relationships by
Diego Fernández Vázquez, Oscar Pastor Acosta, Christopher Spirito, Sarah Brown, Emily Reid

04 April 2014 CyCon Student Call for Papers Deadline Extended
25 March 2014 JFC Brunssum Commander Visited the Centre
24 March 2014 CyCon 2014 Registration is Now Open
14 March 2014 CyCon 2014 Agenda Revealed
11 March 2014 Update to the National Cyber Strategies List